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La barrique, compagnon indispensable du vin

Première partie : l’arbre qui cache la forêt

”barrique

Au départ, la barrique est un simple contenant qui sert au stockage et au transport de denrées. Différentes essences de bois sont traditionnellement utilisées : châtaignier, pin, acacia et chêne. En ce qui concerne le vin, l’acacia compte encore ses adeptes notamment pour les blancs secs et liquoreux, le châtaignier trop riche en tannins apporte trop d’astringence et le pin est un résineux… c’est donc naturellement le chêne qui a été retenu pour cet élevage. Il est résistant, étanche, facile à débiter par fendage et sa bonne tenue au cintrage est reconnue. Pour vous fournir facilement en barrique, Viti Trade propose une très bonne gamme de produits pour acheter ses barriques, tonneaux ou foudres. Les professionnels du vin se procurent de nombreux outillages sur les sites de vente en ligne de matériel viticole et vinicole.

Il y a chêne et chêne

Il existe différents types de chênes qui poussent sur différents « terroirs ». Oui, on peut ici parler de terroir tant l’origine géographique est primordiale pour la qualité des bois. Pour les origines françaises, le chêne sessile (ou rouvre) pousse dans les grandes forêts du Centre et des Vosges (Tronçais, Bertranges, Jupille…). Colbert avait décidé d’y planter plus d’un million d’hectares de chênes pour fournir à l’industrie navale une matière première de grande qualité. Il ne pensait sans doute pas à ce moment là que sa décision aurait de fortes répercussions viticoles deux siècles plus tard. Et pourtant, leur qualité n’est pas passée inaperçue auprès des merrandiers (fabricants des pièces de bois constituant les barriques).

En effet, le chêne de ces forêts présente un grain fin et régulier, en raison essentiellement d’une pousse lente en haute futaie. Il n’est pas rare que les arbres aient 200 ans. Le potentiel aromatique de ce type de chênes est important et sa richesse en tanins est relativement faible, ce qui en fait un premier choix pour l’élevage des vins fins.
Le chêne pédonculé quand à lui vient plutôt du Limousin et du Sud-Ouest et présente un grain plus grossier, l’arbre ayant une croissance en largeur rapide. Son potentiel aromatique est faible et sa richesse en tanins extractibles grande. C’est pourquoi il est plutôt réservé à l’élevage des eaux de vie.

Du chêne au merrain

Couper un chêne est une décision symbolique, qui est prise par le maître forestier en fonction de règles précises, et se réalise pendant la période de repos de l’arbre, c’est-à-dire de novembre à mars. Après avoir été coupé, l’arbre est débité en grume puis en billons. Seules des parties précises de l’arbre peuvent être utilisées en tonnellerie. De fente en refente, on obtient les merrains. Ils sont de la longueur des fûts à venir (95cm) et sont rabotés toujours en respectant la courbe et les fibres du bois afin d’obtenir la même épaisseur (21 à 27cm) sur toute leur longueur. Seul le respect du fil du bois garantit l’imperméabilité intrinsèque de chaque douelle (liée à la structure même du bois) qui ajouté à la qualité d’assemblage entre douelles sera garant de l’étanchéité finale de la barrique.

Les merrains sont ensuite empilés en plein air. Ils y restent des années, exposés à la pluie, au soleil, au vent… qui les lave et les assèche de la sève. Quand enfin la nature a fait son œuvre et que les fibres sont bien dures, on passe à l’atelier.
Vous voyez donc que là aussi, ne serait-ce que pour la maturation du bois, il faut de la patience et du savoir faire. Le merrandier et le tonnelier travaillent main dans la main pour arriver à proposer de bonnes barriques à nos vignerons.

En savoir plus sur la fabrication d’un tonneau ou d’une barrique : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabrication_d%27un_tonneau

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